# Fractions (including Decimals and Percentages)

Fractions is a topic that your child will experience during each year of their primary school career. It is a difficult concept for your child to grasp and lots of practise with concrete equipment will support his or her to understanding in this area. While taught seperately at school, it helps your child to learn if you can make the links between fractions, decimals and percentages explicit to him or her.

### Year 1

Your child should be taught to: recognise, find and name a half as 1 of 2 equal parts of an object, shape or quantity recognise, find and name a quarter as 1out of 4 equal parts of an object, shape or quantity

### Year 2

Your child should be taught to: recognise, find, name and write fractions 1/3, 1/4, 2/4 and 3/4 of a length, shape, set of objects or quantity write simple fractions, for example 1/2 of 6 = 3 and recognise the equivalence of 2/4 and 1/2

### Year 3

Your child should be taught to: count up and down in tenths; recognise that tenths arise from dividing an object into 10 equal parts and in dividing one-digit numbers or quantities by 10 recognise, find and write fractions of a discrete set of objects: unit fractions and non-unit fractions with small denominators recognise and use fractions as numbers: unit fractions and non-unit fractions with small denominators recognise and show, using diagrams, equivalent fractions with small denominators add and subtract fractions with the same denominator within one whole [for example, 5/7 + 1/7 = 6/7] compare and order unit fractions, and fractions with the same denominators solve problems that involve all of the above

### Year 4

Your child should be taught to: recognise and show, using diagrams, families of common equivalent fractions count up and down in hundredths; recognise that hundredths arise when dividing an object by 100 and dividing tenths by 10 solve problems involving increasingly harder fractions to calculate quantities, and fractions to divide quantities, including non-unit fractions where the answer is a whole number add and subtract fractions with the same denominator recognise and write decimal equivalents of any number of tenths or hundreths recognise and write decimal equivalents to 1/4, 1/2, 3/4 find the effect of dividing a one- or two-digit number by 10 and 100, identifying the value of the digits in the answer as ones, tenths and hundredths round decimals with 1 decimal place to the nearest whole number compare numbers with the same number of decimal places up to 2 decimal places solve simple measure and money problems involving fractions and decimals to 2 decimal places

### Year 5

Your child should be taught to: compare and order fractions whose denominators are all multiples of the same number identify, name and write equivalent fractions of a given fraction, represented visually, including tenths and hundredths recognise mixed numbers and improper fractions and convert from one form to the other and write mathematical statements > 1 as a mixed number [for example, 2/5 + 4/5 = 6/5 = 1 1/5 ] add and subtract fractions with the same denominator, and denominators that are multiples of the same number multiply proper fractions and mixed numbers by whole numbers, supported by materials and diagrams read and write decimal numbers as fractions [for example, 0.71 = 71/100] recognise and use thousandths and relate them to tenths, hundredths and decimal equivalents round decimals with 2 decimal places to the nearest whole number and to 1 decimal place read, write, order and compare numbers with up to 3 decimal places solve problems involving number up to 3 decimal places recognise the per cent symbol (%) and understand that per cent relates to 'number of parts per 100', and write percentages as a fraction with denominator 100, and as a decimal fraction solve problems which require knowing percentage and decimal equivalents of 1/2, 1/4, 1/5, 2/5 4/5, and those fractions with a denominator of a multiple of 10 or 25

### Year 6

Your child should be taught to: use common factors to simplify fractions; use common multiples to express fractions in the same denomination compare and order fractions, including fractions >1 add and subtract fractions with different denominators and mixed numbers, using the concept of equivalent fractions multiply simple pairs of proper fractions, writing the answer in its simplest form [for example, 1/4 × 1/2 = 1/8] divide proper fractions by whole numbers [for example, 1/3 ÷ 2 = 1/6] associate a fraction with division and calculate decimal fraction equivalents [for example, 0.375] for a simple fraction [for example, 3/8] identify the value of each digit in numbers given to 3 decimal places and multiply and divide numbers by 10, 100 and 1,000 giving answers up to 3 decimal places multiply one-digit numbers with up to 2 decimal places by whole numbers use written division methods in cases where the answer has up to 2 decimal places solve problems which require answers to be rounded to specified degrees of accuracy recall and use equivalences between simple fractions, decimals and percentages, including in different contexts